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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 628-638

Definition and recommended cultural considerations for advance care planning in Japan: A systematic review

1 Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
2 Palliative and Supportive Care Division, Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Ai Chikada
PhD, RN. Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/apjon.apjon-2137

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Although Delphi studies in Western countries have provided a consensus for practices pertaining to advance care planning (ACP), their findings may not be applicable to Asian countries with distinct, family-oriented cultures. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the definitions of and evidence for ACP and analyze recommended practices in Japan. We conducted a systematic review using narrative synthesis in December 2018. Key words were searched from Ichushi-Web by NPO Japan Medical Abstracts Society, Citation Information by the National Institute of Informatics, and Japanese Institutional Repositories Online databases. In addition, in August 2019, we conducted hand searching using Google Scholar and Google. We included original Japanese articles that addressed factors regarding ACP (e.g. definitions, elements, roles and tasks, and timing of ACP). Data were synthesized using thematic analysis. The study protocol was registered prospectively (PROSPERO: CRD42020152391). Of the 3512 studies screened, 27 were included: 22 quantitative and 5 qualitative. Five-position statements/guidelines were added by hand searching. Definitions and several distinct practice patterns of ACP and the importance of families' roles were identified. Unique recommendations addressed the importance of properly eliciting patients' preferences that are the best for both patients and families, engaging the public to raise awareness of ACP, and developing policies and guidelines for ACP. We identified the definition of and unique recommendations for ACP based on Japanese cultural values and norms. Further research is needed to evaluate the recommendations provided in this systematic review.

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